Hello Sir/Madam! Are you a catfish cultivator? Or are you just interested in cultivating catfish? If so, this article is the right reading for you! This article will discuss information about catfish, starting from business opportunities to the types of catfish that are often cultivated.
Come on, read on to the bottom!
Many cultivators cultivate catfish because the cultivation method is easy with affordable capital. With prices that tend to be stable, catfish are also easy to market.
Conventional catfish marketing opportunities are word of mouth, through middlemen, and through catfish distributors. Plus, in this era where everything is digital, sales can also be made online through e-commerce and the Fish Stalls feature in the application eFisheryKu.
After the African catfish entered Indonesia in 1985, the number of catfish farmers in Indonesia increased. At that time, the popularity of the African catfish overtook the local catfish, which is the only cultivated catfish commodity in Indonesia. This is because African catfish grow faster, produce more eggs, and are more resistant to disease.
However, in 2022 the number of types of cultivated catfish in Indonesia will be more diverse, not only African catfish and local catfish. Even though there are many types, not all types of catfish have high quality for cultivation. Come on, find out the advantages of each type of catfish below!
The Tiada High Quality Catfish or better known as the Pearl Catfish is the result of crossing the Egyptian, Python, Sangkuriang, and Dumbo catfish. Not without reason, this fish is called a pearl because it has a growth rate that is 10-40% faster than other types of catfish. In addition, pearl catfish has a fast growth period in the range of 40-80 days, depending on the stocking density of the seeds in the pond.
Pearl catfish is a fish that has a high survival rate. If you do the breeding process yourself, the seed harvest that you will get from pearl catfish brooders can reach 90%.
For the enlargement process in the first harvest stage, fish of a size fit for consumption can reach 80%. This is because this fish, which can live at temperatures of 15-35°C, has about 70% resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection even without antibiotics.
This type of fish tends to have a relatively low FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio), which is around 0.8-1.0. A low FCR number means that the feed given is effective for fish growth, so the productivity is relatively high. The productivity rate of pearl catfish at the enlargement stage of 20-70% is higher than that of other catfish seeds.
The African catfish is a cross between the Taiwanese catfish and the African catfish which was first developed in Indonesia in 1985. At that time, the government relied heavily on the African catfish commodity to improve the level of catfish farming in Indonesia to make it more profitable.
Compared to local catfish, African catfish are known to grow faster. Dumbo catfish only need 2-3 months to match the size of local catfish that are raised for 1 year.
Dumbo catfish has a slightly greenish black color, but if stressed it will appear black or white spots on its body. When the stress is gone, the skin color will return to normal. Unlike local catfish, African catfish patil does not contain poison so it is not harmful to humans.
Fish that are also immune to this disease will be very safe if cultivated in earthen ponds. Unlike other catfish, if cultivated in earthen ponds, African catfish will not make holes in the bottom soil of the pond. So, you don't have to bother looking for catfish in the hole when the harvest season has arrived.
Sangkuriang catfish is a catfish that comes from the original broodstock, the second generation female African catfish (F2) and the sixth generation male African catfish (F6). This catfish is called Sangkuriang because it is the result of research from the Freshwater Aquaculture Research Institute located in Bogor, West Java in 2004. The Sangkuriang catfish was created because of the many complaints from farmers about the quality of the African catfish which is decreasing day by day.
Sangkuriang catfish is proven to have faster growth compared to African catfish. This type of catfish can produce around 40,000-60,000 eggs when the spawning period arrives. The famous catfish is more disease resistant than the dumbo catfish and this local catfish can also live in ponds with little water. In addition, the sangkuriang catfish has better quality and tastier meat than other catfish.
Long before the African catfish entered Indonesia, Indonesian people have long known local catfish as a consumption fish. The local catfish has a smaller body size than the dumbo catfish, has a greenish-black color, and has poisonous shafts at both bases of its pectoral fins. When it stings, the poison-containing shaft can kill animals and cause fever and swelling in humans. In addition, the local catfish patil can also be used to walk on land, so that the local catfish is known as the Walking Catfish.
In Indonesia, there are 3 types of local catfish, namely black catfish, white catfish and red catfish. Among the three, only black catfish are suitable for consumption, while white and red catfish are cultivated as ornamental fish.
The spread of local catfish began in the South Asian region to the western part of Indonesia. The catfish that live in rivers and swamps have been abandoned by the community since the African catfish entered Indonesia. The reason is that the African catfish has faster growth and a larger average size.
Python catfish is the result of a cross between local African catfish and Thai catfish. Python catfish have a slimy skin that contains black pigment. With its wide mouth, the python catfish can eat other fish and carrion in the cultivation pond. The python catfish has 8 whiskers around the mouth, single fins on the back, tail and anal area, and paired fins on the chest and abdomen.
Python catfish can live in rivers with calm currents, ponds, lakes or swamps. Python catfish can live in waters with low oxygen levels because they have additional respiratory organs in front of their gills. This additional respiratory organ makes it easier for the python catfish to obtain oxygen directly from the air. As long as the area is below 700 m above sea level, python catfish can live and grow well. If you want to cultivate python catfish in an earthen pond, it is best to use clay/loam type soil, not porous, muddy, and fertile.
After reading the characteristics, disadvantages and advantages of several types of catfish above, it's time for you to determine which type of catfish is suitable for cultivation. Not only seen from the speed of growth, suitability must also be seen from the location of the pond, air conditions, water conditions, and the cultivation method needed by each type of catfish. Everything just needs to be adjusted to the needs and conditions of Mr / Ms.
If you have a pond where the water contains little oxygen, you are suitable for raising python catfish. The python catfish has an additional breathing device in front of its gills, so you don't need to add a wheel over the pond to provide additional oxygen. But keep in mind that python catfish cannot live above an altitude of 700 m above sea level, sir/madam.
Then, if you want a catfish that grows very fast and has high resistance to disease, you can choose the pearl catfish. Pearl catfish can grow up to 10-40% faster than other types of catfish within 40-80 days. Despite its fast growth, pearl catfish is not the catfish that has the most delicious meat among other catfish.
The catfish with the most delicious and low-fat meat is the local catfish. Even so, local catfish grow very slowly. To reach the same size, African catfish only need 2-3 months while local catfish takes 1 year. The thing that you also need to think about when you want to raise local catfish is the patil. The patil owned by local catfish can kill other animals and cause swelling and fever in humans.
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