Have you ever wondered, how to make easy and inexpensive fish feed?
As we know, the purchase of feed is one component that makes fish production costs high. However, you don't need to worry. Making fish feed is not difficult and can save fish raising costs. Fish feed must have adequate composition and nutritional content so that it will accelerate fish growth.
Come on, read the article below to find out how to make easy and cheap fish pellets!
Before moving on to how to make fish feed, you must know the daily needs of fish feed. To find out how much fish feed is needed per day, you need to know the weight of the fish, because the amount of feed that is stocked every day is around 3% of the total fish weight. The total feed is divided to be stocked 2-3 times a day, namely in the morning (at 08.00), afternoon (12.00), and afternoon (16.00).
Periodically, the daily feed requirement for fish is adjusted according to weight gain and changes in population. To find out the average weight and population of fish, you need to do fish sampling. Fish sampling activities are not only to determine the amount of feed given, but also to determine the growth rate of fish.
Like humans, fish need good nutrition in order to live healthily. Therefore, fish need to be given feed with adequate nutritional composition and content. The composition of fish feed that must be present is protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and vitamins.
Fish need feed with protein content of 20-60%. Protein functions to build muscles, cells and body tissues, especially for fish seeds. Protein is key for growth and health in all types of fish.
The need for carbohydrates in fish is around 20-30%, consisting of crude fiber and extracts without nitrogen (BETN). Carbohydrates are needed for growth and energy.
The need for fat content in the feed needed by fish is around 4-18%. The fat needed by fish must come from animal fat or vegetable fat. Fat serves to maintain fish stamina.
However, the fat in fish should not be too high. Excess fat in fish can cause liver damage, disease and premature death.
Fish need minerals as much as 2-5%. Minerals in fish are needed to maintain healthy bones, teeth and scales. The main minerals needed are calcium and phosphorus.
Vitamins cannot be produced by the body of fish. Therefore, it must be assisted from feed. Fish need as much as 2-5% vitamins. The need for vitamins in fish is influenced by age, size, growth rate, temperature, and fish feed composition.
The composition of fish feed raw materials contained in the feed will vary depending on the nutritional needs of each type of fish. Therefore, the selection of feed raw materials is the first step in the manufacture of fish feed. In addition to choosing the ingredients used as raw materials for fish feed, the nutritional content of each raw material must also be known.
The following are types of raw materials derived from animal and vegetable ingredients that are rich in protein for the manufacture of fish feed:
|No||Raw material||Nutrient content|
|1.||Fish flour||22,65% proteins; 15,38% fat; 26,65% ashes; 1,80% fiber; and 10,72% of water.|
|2.||Rebon Flour||59,4% proteins; 3,6% fat; 3,2% carbohydrates; and 21.6% of water.|
|3.||Benawa Flour||23,38% proteins; 25,33% fat; 0.06% carbohydrates; 11,41% ashes; 11,82% fiber; and 5,43% of water.|
|4.||Shrimp Head Flour||48,35% proteins; 6,65% fat; 7,72% ashes; 14,61% coarse fiber; and 17,28% of water.|
|5.||Chick Flour||61,65% proteins; 27,30% fat; 2,34% ashes; and 8,80% of water.|
|6.||Silkworm Cocoons Flour||46,74% proteins; 29,75% fat; 4,86% ashes; 8,89% fiber; and 9,76% of water.|
|7.||Fish Liver Oil Dregs||25,08% proteins; 56,75% fat; 6,60% ashes; and 12.06% of water.|
|8.||Blood Powder||71,45% proteins; 0.42% fat; 13,12% carbohydrates; 5,45% ashes; 7,95% fiber; and 5.19% of water.|
|9.||Fish Silage||18-20% protein; 1-2% fat; 4-6% ashes; 70-75% water; 1-3% lime; and 0.3-0.9% phosphorus.|
|10.||Chicken Feather Charcoal and Bone Meal||25,54% proteins; 3,80% fat; 61,60% ashes; 1,80% fiber; and 5.52% of water.|
|11.||Snail Flour||54,29% proteins; 4,18% fat; 30,45% carbohydrates; 4,07% of ashes; 8,3% lime; 20,3% phosphorus; and 7,01% of water.|
|12.||Earthworm Flour||72% proteins.|
|13.||Chicken and Duck Eggs||12,8% proteins; 11,5% fat; 0.7% carbohydrates; and 74% water.|
|14.||Milk Flour (Skim)||35,6% proteins; 1,0% fat; 52.0% carbohydrates; and 3.5% of water.|
|No||Raw material||Nutrient content|
|1.||Bran||8,2% proteins; 12,15% fat; 28,62% carbohydrates; 10.5% ashes; 24,46% coarse fiber; and 10.15% of water.|
|2.||Wheat Bran||11,99% proteins; 1,48% fat; 64,75% carbohydrates; 0.64% ash; 3,75% coarse fiber; and 17,35% of water.|
|3.||Cantel or Sorghum||13,0% proteins; 2,05% fat; 47,85% carbohydrates; 12,6% ash; 13.5% crude fiber; and 10.64% of water.|
8,9% proteins; 1,3% fat; 77,3% carbohydrates;
0.06% ash; and 13,25% of water.
|5.||Soybean Flour||44% protein; 14,3% fat; 29,5% carbohydrates; 5.4% ash; 2.8% fiber; and 8.4% water.|
|6.||Tofu Dregs Flour||23,55% proteins; 5,54% fat; 26,92% carbohydrates; 17,03% ashes; 16,53% coarse fiber; and 10.43% of water.|
|7.||Peanut Flour||47,9% proteins; 10,9% fat; 25,0% carbohydrates; 4.8% ashes; 3.6% coarse fiber; and 7.8% of water.|
|8.||Coconut Cake||17,09% proteins; 9,44% fat; 23,77% carbohydrates; 5,92% ashes; 30.4% coarse fiber; and 13,35% of water.|
|9.||Kapok or Randu seeds||27,4% proteins; 5,6% fat; 18,6% carbohydrates; 7,3% ash; 25,3% coarse fiber; and 6.1 % water.|
|10.||Cotton seed||19,4% protein; 19,5% fat; 47,8% linoleic fatty acid; 23,4% palmitic fatty acid; and 22,9% oleic fatty acid.|
|11.||Turi Leaf Flour||27,54% proteins; 4,73% fat; 21,30% carbohydrates; 20,45% ashes; 14,01% coarse fiber; and 11,97% of water.|
|12.||Lamtoro Leaf Flour||36,82% proteins; 5,4% fat; 16,08% carbohydrates; 1,31% ash; 18,14% coarse fiber; and 8.8% water.|
|13.||Cassava Leaf Flour||34,21% proteins; 4,6% fat; 14,69% carbohydrates; and 0.12 % of water.|
In the manufacture of fish feed, the ingredients used are divided into 2 parts according to the protein content, namely supplementary ingredients and basal materials. Supplement ingredients are ingredients that have a protein content of more than 20%. Meanwhile, basal material is a material that has a protein content of less than 20%.
The composition of fish pellets used to make fish feed has requirements, such as high nutrition, easy to process, affordable price, easy to obtain, and does not contain toxins. Given the increasing price of pellets, you can try making your own fish pellets to save on fish production costs.
Ingredients for making fish pellets:
How to make fish pellets:
Previously, you already knew how to make fish pellets that were easy and cheap. Good feed for fish is important to produce healthy and high-quality fish.
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